Facial Asymmetry Phenotypes in Adult Patients With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate and Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Using Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis

Mihee Hong, Haeddeuri Kim, Il Hyung Yang, Jin Young Choi, Jong Ho Lee, Myung Jin Kim, Jee Hyeok Chung, Sukwha Kim, Seung Hak Baek

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1 Scopus citations

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to classify and characterize facial asymmetry (FA) phenotypes in adult patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and skeletal class III malocclusion. The samples comprised 52 adult UCLP patients (36 men and 16 women; mean age, 22.43 y) who had undergone orthognathic surgery for correction of class III malocclusion. After measurement of 22 cephalometric parameters in posteroanterior cephalograms taken 1 month before orthognathic surgery, principal component analysis was performed to obtain 5 representative parameters [deviation (mm) of ANS (ANS-dev), maxillary central incisor contact point (Mx1-dev), and menton (Me-dev); cant (degree) of the maxillary anterior occlusal plane (MxAntOP-cant) and mandibular border (MnBorder-cant)]. K-means cluster analysis was conducted using these representative parameters. The differences in cephalometric parameters among the clusters were statistically analyzed. The FA phenotypes were classified into 4 types: No-cant-and-No-deviation type (cluster-4, n=16, 30.8%); MxMn-cant-MxMn-dev to the cleft-side type (cluster-3, n=4, 7.7%); Mx-cant-Mn-shift to the cleft-side type (cluster-2, n=15, 28.8%); and Mn-cant-Mn-dev to the noncleft-side type (cluster-1, n=17, 32.7%). Asymmetry in the maxilla and/or mandible were observed in 70% of patients. One third of patients (cluster-2 and cluster-3; sum, 36.5%) exhibited significant cant of MxAntOP induced by cleft and cant or shift of the mandible to the cleft side. Another one third of patients (cluster-1, 32.7%) demonstrated significant deviation and cant of the mandible to the noncleft-side despite cleft in the maxilla. This FA phenotype classification might be a basic guideline for diagnosis and treatment planning for UCLP patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E314-E319
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Volume34
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2023

Keywords

  • Class III malocclusion
  • UCLP
  • cluster analysis
  • facial asymmetry

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