Inorganic chemicals in an effluent-dominated stream as indicators for chemical reactions and streamflows

Kangjoo Kim, Ji Sun Lee, Chang Whan Oh, Gab Soo Hwang, Jinsam Kim, Sungku Yeo, Yeongkyoo Kim, Seongmin Park

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26 Scopus citations


The chemical behavior of major inorganic ions in the streams of the Mankyung River area (South Korea) was investigated. Mixing with effluent from the Jeonju STP (a municipal sewage treatment plant in Jeonju City) was the most important process in regulating the water chemistry of the streams. The effluent was chemically distinct relative to the stream waters in inorganic composition. Behavior of various ions was evaluated by comparing their concentrations with the concentration of chloride, a conservative chemical species. It was revealed that concentrations of chloride and sulfate, the total concentration of major cations, and electrical conductivity in the stream were controlled only by mixing, indicating their conservative behavior similar to chloride. Alkalinity and concentration of nitrate, however, were regulated by various reactions such as mixing, photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition of organic matter. Streamflows were estimated by observing chemical composition of the effluent and those of up/downstream waters. Estimated flows based on the conservative chemical parameters were nearly the same as those directly measured using an area-velocity method, indicating the validity of the chemistry-based method.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-156
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Hydrology
Issue number1-4
StatePublished - 30 Jul 2002


  • Chloride
  • Effluent
  • Mankyung River
  • Sewage treatment plant
  • Streamflow
  • Tracer study


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