Li2O–B2O3–Bi2O3 glasses: gamma-rays and neutrons attenuation study using ParShield/WinXCOM program and Geant4 and Penelope codes

G. Lakshminarayana, Y. Elmahroug, Ashok Kumar, M. G. Dong, Dong Eun Lee, Jonghun Yoon, Taejoon Park

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17 Scopus citations


For 25 Li2O–(75 − x) B2O3–x Bi2O3 (where x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 mol%) glasses, gamma-ray and neutrons attenuation features were explored by theoretical approach using ParShield/WinXCOM program, Geant4, and Penelope codes. At 133Ba (276, 303, 356, and 384 keV), 22Na (511 and 1280 keV), 137Cs (662 keV), 54Mn (835 keV), and 60Co (1170 and 1330 keV) photon peaks, for all samples, mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Zeff), effective electron density (Neff), half-value layer (HVL), and mean free path (MFP) parameters have been evaluated using ParShield/WinXCOM program. The μ/ρ values computed by WinXCOM, Geant4, and Penelope codes were compared to check the accuracy, and satisfactory agreement among the values was identified. Moreover, using G–P fitting method as a function of penetration depth (1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 mfp) within the photon energy range of 0.015–15 MeV, exposure buildup factor (EBF) and energy absorption buildup factor (EABF) were derived. For all selected glasses, the effectiveness of the neutrons attenuation has been discussed in terms of macroscopic effective removal cross-section (ΣR), coherent scattering cross-section (σcs), incoherent scattering cross-section (σics), absorption cross-section (σA), and total neutron cross-section (σT). The ‘σT’ values have been calculated within 10−4–10−8 MeV neutron energy range using the Geant4 code. The μ/ρ possessed larger values at the lowest energy and lower values at higher energy regions for all studied glasses. The μ/ρ, Zeff, HVL, and MFP values showed enhanced γ-ray shielding capability with Bi2O3 content increment in the samples. The 25 Li2O–35 B2O3–40 Bi2O3 (mol%) sample by having larger Zeq and/or Zeff value, faired lower EBF and EABF values. Largest μ/ρ and Zeff, and minimal HVL, MFP, EBF, and EABF values of 25 Li2O–35 B2O3–40 Bi2O3 (mol%) glass demonstrated its superior γ-ray attenuation ability among all examined glasses. Further, among all glasses, 25 Li2O–75 B2O3 (mol%) sample exhibits relatively higher ΣR (0.11326 cm−1) and ‘σT’ (46.109 cm−1 → 0.84607 cm−1 from 1 × 10−8 MeV → 1×10−4 MeV neutron energy) values for fast and thermal neutrons attenuation, respectively, indicating its better neutrons absorption competence.

Original languageEnglish
Article number249
JournalApplied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2020


  • Geant4
  • Lithium bismuth borate glass
  • Mass attenuation coefficient
  • ParShield
  • Penelope
  • Total neutron cross-section


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