Magnetic Ti3C2Tx (Mxene) for diclofenac degradation via the ultraviolet/chlorine advanced oxidation process

Jiseon Jang, Asif Shahzad, Seung Han Woo, Dae Sung Lee

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In this study, a magnetic titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) MXene was synthesized through a one-step chemical co-precipitation method using ammonium bifluoride as a mild etchant and was investigated for photocatalytic degradation of diclofenac (DCF) via the ultraviolet (UV)/chlorine process. The DCF degradation was enhanced by the generation of active radicals such as the hydroxyl radical and reactive chlorine species compared with that resulting from UV and chlorination treatment alone as well as UV/H2O2 processes at pH 7. The first-order rate constant of the UV/chlorine process was 0.1025 min−1, which is 12.7 and 6.8 times higher than those of the only UV and UV/H2O2 processes, respectively. Magnetic nanoparticles on the surfaces of Ti3C2Tx sheets not only enhanced the adsorption capacity of the synthesized composite but also increased the rate of electron transfer in solution. In addition, the effects of different operating conditions such as magnetic Ti3C2Tx dose, pH, and initial chlorine concentration on DCF degradation were investigated. Magnetic Ti3C2Tx showed high stability and photodegradation efficiency during seven consecutive degradation reaction cycles. The derivatives of DCF during the photocatalytic degradation process were also investigated based on the observed intermediate products and a degradation pathway was proposed. Thus the synthesized magnetic Ti3C2Tx is a simple and affordable photocatalyst, which can significantly enhance DCF degradation in the UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108990
JournalEnvironmental Research
StatePublished - Mar 2020


  • Adsorption
  • Diclofenac
  • Kinetics
  • TiCT MXene
  • UV/Chlorine


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