Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 regulates microglial motility and phagocytic activity

Hyejin Jeon, Jong Heon Kim, Jae Hong Kim, Won Ha Lee, Myung Shik Lee, Kyoungho Suk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

83 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of urokinase type plasminogen activators (uPA) and tissue type plasminogen activators (tPA), which mediate fibrinolysis. PAI-1 is also involved in the innate immunity by regulating cell migration and phagocytosis. However, little is known about the role of PAI-1 in the central nervous system.Methods: In this study, we identified PAI-1 in the culture medium of mouse mixed glial cells by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Secretion of PAI-1 from glial cultures was detected by ELISA and western blotting analysis. Cell migration was evaluated by in vitro scratch-wound healing assay or Boyden chamber assay and an in vivo stab wound injury model. Phagocytic activity was measured by uptake of zymosan particles.Results: The levels of PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression were increased by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ stimulation in both microglia and astrocytes. PAI-1 promoted the migration of microglial cells in culture via the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) 1/Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 axis. PAI-1 also increased microglial migration in vivo when injected into mouse brain. PAI-1-mediated microglial migration was independent of protease inhibition, because an R346A mutant of PAI-1 with impaired PA inhibitory activity also promoted microglial migration. Moreover, PAI-1 was able to modulate microglial phagocytic activity. PAI-1 inhibited microglial engulfment of zymosan particles in a vitronectin- and Toll-like receptor 2/6-dependent manner.Conclusion: Our results indicate that glia-derived PAI-1 may regulate microglial migration and phagocytosis in an autocrine or paracrine manner. This may have important implications in the regulation of brain microglial activities in health and disease.

Original languageEnglish
Article number637
JournalJournal of Neuroinflammation
Volume9
DOIs
StatePublished - 29 Jun 2012

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 regulates microglial motility and phagocytic activity'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this