Post-Translational Modifications of ATG4B in the Regulation of Autophagy

Na Yeon Park, Doo Sin Jo, Dong Hyung Cho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

Autophagy plays a key role in eliminating and recycling cellular components in response to stress, including starvation. Dysregulation of autophagy is observed in various diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and diabetes. Autophagy is tightly regulated by autophagy-related (ATG) proteins. Autophagy-related 4 (ATG4) is the sole cysteine protease, and four homo-logs (ATG4A–D) have been identified in mammals. These proteins have two domains: catalytic and short fingers. ATG4 facilitates autophagy by promoting autophagosome maturation through reversible lipidation and delipidation of seven autophagy-related 8 (ATG8) homologs, including mi-crotubule-associated protein 1-light chain 3 (LC3) and GABA type A receptor-associated protein (GABARAP). Each ATG4 homolog shows a preference for a specific ATG8 homolog. Post-transla-tional modifications of ATG4, including phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, O-GlcNAcylation, oxidation, S-nitrosylation, ubiquitination, and proteolytic cleavage, regulate its activity and ATG8 processing, thus modulating its autophagic activity. We reviewed recent advances in our understanding of the effect of post-translational modification on the regulation, activity, and function of ATG4, the main protease that controls autophagy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1330
JournalCells
Volume11
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2022

Keywords

  • ATG4
  • autophagy
  • post-translational modification

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