Scrophularia buergeriana extract (Brainon) improves scopolamine-induced neuronal impairment and cholinergic dysfunction in mice through creb-bdnf signaling pathway

Hae Jin Lee, Hae Lim Kim, Dae Young Lee, Dong Ryung Lee, Bong Keun Choi, Seung Hwan Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

We evaluated the effectiveness of Scrophularia buergeriana extract (Brainon) on cognitive dysfunction and determined its underlying mechanisms in a scopolamine (SCO)-treated mouse model of memory impairment. Brainon treatment for 28 days ameliorated the symptoms of memory impairment as indicated by the results of both passive avoidance performance and the Morris water mazes. Brainon lowered acetylcholinesterase activity and raised acetylcholine levels in the hippocampus. The treatment elevated the protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding (CREB). Additionally, the excessive generation of SCO-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent oxidative stress were suppressed by the enhancement of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 and SOD-2 proteins. mRNA levels of upregulated interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, as well as the apoptotic protein Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved poly adenosine diphosphateribose polymerase (PARP) expression after SCO injection were downregulated by Brainon treatment. Collectively, these findings suggested that Brainon possesses anti-amnesic effects through the CREBBDNF pathway. Moreover, it exerted antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects in SCO-induced mice exhibiting cognitive impairment and memory loss.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4286
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Volume11
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2021

Keywords

  • Anti-amnesic effect
  • Anti-apoptotic
  • Anti-inflammation
  • Anti-oxidant
  • Cholinergic neurotransmission
  • Scrophularia buergeriana

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