Soluble ANPEP Released From Human Astrocytes as a Positive Regulator of Microglial Activation and Neuroinflammation: Brain Renin-Angiotensin System in Astrocyte-Microglia Crosstalk

Jong Heon Kim, Ruqayya Afridi, Eunji Cho, Jong Hyuk Yoon, Yong Hyun Lim, Ho Won Lee, Hoon Ryu, Kyoungho Suk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Astrocytes are major supportive glia and immune modulators in the brain; they are highly secretory in nature and interact with other cell types via their secreted proteomes. To understand how astrocytes communicate during neuroinflammation, we profiled the secretome of human astrocytes following stimulation with proinflammatory factors. A total of 149 proteins were significantly upregulated in stimulated astrocytes, and a bioinformatics analysis of the astrocyte secretome revealed that the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important mechanism of astrocyte communication. We observed that the levels of soluble form of aminopeptidase N (sANPEP), an RAS component that converts angiotensin (Ang) III to Ang IV in a neuroinflammatory milieu, significantly increased in the astrocyte secretome. To elucidate the role of sANPEP and Ang IV in neuroinflammation, we first evaluated the expression of Ang IV receptors in human glial cells because Ang IV mediates biological effects through its receptors. The expression of angiotensin type 1 receptor was considerably upregulated in activated human microglial cells but not in human astrocytes. Moreover, interleukin-1β release from human microglial cells was synergistically increased by cotreatment with sANPEP and its substrate, Ang III, suggesting the proinflammatory action of Ang IV generated by sANPEP. In a mouse neuroinflammation model, brain microglial activation and proinflammatory cytokine expression levels were increased by intracerebroventricular injection of sANPEP and attenuated by an enzymatic inhibitor and neutralizing antibody against sANPEP. Collectively, our results indicate that astrocytic sANPEP-induced increase in Ang IV exacerbates neuroinflammation by interacting with microglial proinflammatory receptor angiotensin type 1 receptor, highlighting an important role of indirect crosstalk between astrocytes and microglia through the brain RAS in neuroinflammation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100424
JournalMolecular and Cellular Proteomics
Volume21
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2022

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