Structure Dependent Electrochemical Behaviors of Hard Carbon Anode Materials Derived from Natural Polymer for Next-Generation Sodium Ion Battery

Jungpil Kim, Sang Don Han, Bonwook Koo, Sang Hyun Lee, Junghoon Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Hard carbons are one of the most promising anode materials for next-generation sodium-ion batteries due to their high reversible capacity, long cycle life, and low cost. The advantage in terms of price of hard carbons can be further improved by using cheaper resources such as biomass waste as precursors. Lignin is one of the richest natural bio-polymer in the earth which can be obtained from woods. As the lignin has three-dimensional amorphous polymeric structure, it is considered as good precursor for producing carbonaceous materials under proper carbonization processes for energy storage devices. In this study, structural properties of lignin-derived hard carbons such as interlayer spacing, degree of disorder and surface defects are controlled. Specifically, lignin-derived hard carbons were synthesized at 1000 °C, 1250 °C, and 1500 °C, and it was confirmed that the structure gradually changed from a disordered structure to ordered structure through X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Hard carbons exhibit sloping regions at high voltage and plateau region at low voltage during the electrochemical processes for sodium ions. As the heat treatment temperature increases, the contribution to the overall reversible capacity of the sloping region decreases and the contribution of the plateau region increases. This trend confirms that it affects reversible capacity, rate-capability, and cycling stability, meaning that an understanding of structural properties and related electrochemical properties is necessary when developing hard carbon as a negative electrode material for sodium ion batteries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4373
JournalPolymers
Volume15
Issue number22
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2023

Keywords

  • anode
  • hard carbon
  • lignin
  • natural polymer
  • sodium ion battery

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