## Abstract

This study aims to investigate the pressure changes, bubble dynamics, and flow physics inside the U- and C-shaped pipes with four different gravitational directions. The simulation is performed using a 1D centerline-based mesh generation technique along with a two-fluid model in the open-source software, OpenFOAM v.6. The continuity and momentum equations of the two-fluid model are discretized using the pressure-implicit method for the pressure-linked equation algorithm. The static and hydrostatic pressures in the two-phase flow were consistent with those of single-phase flow. The dynamic pressure in the two-phase flow was strongly influenced by the effect of the buoyancy force. In particular, if the direction of buoyancy force is the same as the flow direction, the dynamic pressure of the air phase increases, and that of the water phase decreases to satisfy the law of conservation of mass. Dean flows are observed on the transverse plane of the curve regions in both C-shaped and U-shaped pipes. The turbulent kinetic energy is stronger in a two-phase flow than in a single-phase flow. Using the 1D centerline-based mesh generation technique, we demonstrate the changes in pressure and the turbulent kinetic energy of the single- and two-phase flows, which could be observed in curve pipes.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 2020 |

Pages (from-to) | 1-19 |

Number of pages | 19 |

Journal | Applied Sciences (Switzerland) |

Volume | 11 |

Issue number | 5 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 1 Mar 2021 |

## Keywords

- Computational fluid dynamics
- Dynamic pressure
- Pressure drop
- Two-fluid model
- Volume fraction